Find the inverse transform of each of the following.

a \(\displaystyle F\left( s \right) = \frac{{6s - 5}}{{{s^2} + 7}}\)

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From the denominator of this one it appears that it is either a sine or a cosine. However, the numerator doesn’t match up to either of these in the table. A cosine wants just an \(s\) in the numerator with at most a multiplicative constant, while a sine wants only a constant and no \(s\) in the numerator.

We’ve got both in the numerator. This is easy to fix however. We will just split up the transform into two terms and then do inverse transforms.

\[\begin{align*}F\left( s \right) & = \frac{{6s}}{{{s^2} + 7}} - \frac{{5\frac{{\sqrt 7 }}{{\sqrt 7 }}}}{{{s^2} + 7}}\\ f\left( t \right) & = 6\cos \left( {\sqrt 7 t} \right) - \frac{5}{{\sqrt 7 }}\sin \left( {\sqrt 7 t} \right)\end{align*}\]

Do not get too used to always getting the perfect squares in sines and cosines that we saw in the first set of examples. More often than not (at least in my class) they won’t be perfect squares!

b \(\displaystyle F\left( s \right) = \frac{{1 - 3s}}{{{s^2} + 8s + 21}}\)

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In this case there are no denominators in our table that look like this. We can however make the denominator look like one of the denominators in the table by completing the square on the denominator. So, let’s do that first.

\[\begin{align*}{s^2} + 8s + 21 & = {s^2} + 8s + 16 - 16 + 21\\ & = {s^2} + 8s + 16 + 5\\ & = {\left( {s + 4} \right)^2} + 5\end{align*}\]

Recall that in completing the square you take half the coefficient of the \(s\), square this, and then add and subtract the result to the polynomial. After doing this the first three terms should factor as a perfect square.

So, the transform can be written as the following.

\[F\left( s \right) = \frac{{1 - 3s}}{{{{\left( {s + 4} \right)}^2} + 5}}\]

Okay, with this rewrite it looks like we’ve got #19 and/or #20’s from our table of transforms. However, note that in order for it to be a #19 we want just a constant in the numerator and in order to be a #20 we need an \(s – a\) in the numerator. We’ve got neither of these, so we’ll have to correct the numerator to get it into proper form.

In correcting the numerator always get the \(s – a\) first. This is the important part. We will also need to be careful of the 3 that sits in front of the \(s\). One way to take care of this is to break the term into two pieces, factor the 3 out of the second and then fix up the numerator of this term. This will work; however, it will put three terms into our answer and there are really only two terms.

So, we will leave the transform as a single term and correct it as follows,

\[\begin{align*}F\left( s \right) & = \frac{{1 - 3\left( {s + 4 - 4} \right)}}{{{{\left( {s + 4} \right)}^2} + 5}}\\ & = \frac{{1 - 3\left( {s + 4} \right) + 12}}{{{{\left( {s + 4} \right)}^2} + 5}}\\ & = \frac{{ - 3\left( {s + 4} \right) + 13}}{{{{\left( {s + 4} \right)}^2} + 5}}\end{align*}\]

We needed an \(s + 4\) in the numerator, so we put that in. We just needed to make sure and take the 4 back out by subtracting it back out. Also, because of the 3 multiplying the \(s\) we needed to do all this inside a set of parenthesis. Then we partially multiplied the 3 through the second term and combined the constants. With the transform in this form, we can break it up into two transforms each of which are in the tables and so we can do inverse transforms on them,

\[\begin{align*}F\left( s \right) & = - 3\frac{{s + 4}}{{{{\left( {s + 4} \right)}^2} + 5}} + \frac{{13\frac{{\sqrt 5 }}{{\sqrt 5 }}}}{{{{\left( {s + 4} \right)}^2} + 5}}\\ f\left( t \right) & = - 3{{\bf{e}}^{ - 4t}}\cos \left( {\sqrt 5 t} \right) + \frac{{13}}{{\sqrt 5 }}{{\bf{e}}^{ - 4t}}\sin \left( {\sqrt 5 t} \right)\end{align*}\]

c \(\displaystyle G\left( s \right) = \frac{{3s - 2}}{{2{s^2} - 6s - 2}}\)

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This one is similar to the last one. We just need to be careful with the completing the square however. The first thing that we should do is factor a 2 out of the denominator, then complete the square. Remember that when completing the square a coefficient of 1 on the \(s^{2}\) term is needed! So, here’s the work for this transform.

\[\begin{align*}G\left( s \right) & = \frac{{3s - 2}}{{2\left( {{s^2} - 3s - 1} \right)}}\\ & = \frac{1}{2}\frac{{3s - 2}}{{{s^2} - 3s + \frac{9}{4} - \frac{9}{4} - 1}}\\ & = \frac{1}{2}\frac{{3s - 2}}{{{{\left( {s - \frac{3}{2}} \right)}^2} - \frac{{13}}{4}}}\end{align*}\]

So, it looks like we’ve got #21 and #22 with a corrected numerator. Here’s the work for that and the inverse transform.

\[\begin{align*}G\left( s \right) & = \frac{1}{2}\frac{{3\left( {s - \frac{3}{2} + \frac{3}{2}} \right) - 2}}{{{{\left( {s - \frac{3}{2}} \right)}^2} - \frac{{13}}{4}}}\\ & = \frac{1}{2}\frac{{3\left( {s - \frac{3}{2}} \right) + \frac{5}{2}}}{{{{\left( {s - \frac{3}{2}} \right)}^2} - \frac{{13}}{4}}}\\ & = \frac{1}{2}\left( {\frac{{3\left( {s - \frac{3}{2}} \right)}}{{{{\left( {s - \frac{3}{2}} \right)}^2} - \frac{{13}}{4}}} + \frac{{\frac{5}{2}\frac{{\sqrt {13} }}{{\sqrt {13} }}}}{{{{\left( {s - \frac{3}{2}} \right)}^2} - \frac{{13}}{4}}}} \right)\\ g\left( t \right) & = \frac{1}{2}\left( {3{{\bf{e}}^{\frac{{3\,t}}{2}}}\cosh \left( {\frac{{\sqrt {13} }}{2}t} \right) + \frac{5}{{\sqrt {13} }}{{\bf{e}}^{\frac{{3\,t}}{2}}}\sinh \left( {\frac{{\sqrt {13} }}{2}t} \right)} \right)\end{align*}\]

In correcting the numerator of the second term, notice that I only put in the square root since we already had the “over 2” part of the fraction that we needed in the numerator.

d \(\displaystyle H\left( s \right) = \frac{{s + 7}}{{{s^2} - 3s - 10}}\)

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This one appears to be similar to the previous two, but it actually isn’t. The denominators in the previous two couldn’t be easily factored. In this case the denominator does factor and so we need to deal with it differently. Here is the transform with the factored denominator.

\[H\left( s \right) = \frac{{s + 7}}{{\left( {s + 2} \right)\left( {s - 5} \right)}}\]

The denominator of this transform seems to suggest that we’ve got a couple of exponentials, however in order to be exponentials there can only be a single term in the denominator and no \(s\)’s in the numerator.

To fix this we will need to do partial fractions on this transform. In this case the partial fraction decomposition will be

\[H\left( s \right) = \frac{A}{{s + 2}} + \frac{B}{{s - 5}}\]

Don’t remember how to do partial fractions? In this example we’ll show you one way of getting the values of the constants and after this example we’ll review how to get the correct form of the partial fraction decomposition.

Okay, so let’s get the constants. There is a method for finding the constants that will always work, however it can lead to more work than is sometimes required. Eventually, we will need that method, however in this case there is an easier way to find the constants.

Regardless of the method used, the first step is to actually add the two terms back up. This gives the following.

\[\frac{{s + 7}}{{\left( {s + 2} \right)\left( {s - 5} \right)}} = \frac{{A\left( {s - 5} \right) + B\left( {s + 2} \right)}}{{\left( {s + 2} \right)\left( {s - 5} \right)}}\]

Now, this needs to be true for any \(s\) that we should choose to put in. So, since the denominators are the same we just need to get the numerators equal. Therefore, set the numerators equal.

\[s + 7 = A\left( {s - 5} \right) + B\left( {s + 2} \right)\]

Again, this must be true for ANY value of \(s\) that we want to put in. So, let’s take advantage of that. If it must be true for any value of \(s\) then it must be true for \(s = - 2\), to pick a value at random. In this case we get,

\[5 = A\left( { - 7} \right) + B\left( 0 \right)\hspace{0.25in} \Rightarrow \hspace{0.25in} A = - \frac{5}{7}\]

We found \(A\) by appropriately picking \(s\). We can \(B\) in the same way if we chose \(s = 5\).

\[12 = A\left( 0 \right) + B\left( 7 \right)\hspace{0.25in} \Rightarrow \hspace{0.25in}B = \frac{{12}}{7}\]

This will not always work, but when it does it will usually simplify the work considerably.

So, with these constants the transform becomes,

\[H\left( s \right) = \frac{{ - \frac{5}{7}}}{{s + 2}} + \frac{{\frac{{12}}{7}}}{{s - 5}}\]

We can now easily do the inverse transform to get,

\[h\left( t \right) = - \frac{5}{7}{{\bf{e}}^{ - 2t}} + \frac{{12}}{7}{{\bf{e}}^{5t}}\]